Quasars, Redshifts and the "acceleratingexpansion" Universe. Data, sky fields, & some thoughts on the right Cosmological model 
This page provides links to the Milliquas & HMQ quasar catalogs, the MORX catalog of radio/Xray associations, and the ASP optical catalog, plus a few informal treatises on what we know or can know about our Universe. "... the Universe is not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we can suppose.”  J. B. S. Haldane, 1927 
Catalogs
available:
NEW: The Milliquas (Million Quasars) catalog version 7.1  quasars to 14 February 2021 including SDSSDR16Q manual data. This edition totals over 1.5 million objects. Get it here. The AllSky Portable Optical Catalog (ASP: 2017, PASA 34, 25) presents 1.16 billion optical objects in an allsky downloadable catalog. More details at its page here. The Million Optical Radio/Xray Associations catalog (MORX: 2016, PASA 33,52) is available here. It maps largesurvey radio and Xray sources onto 1,002,855 optical objects. There also is a supplemental file which adds 118,200 objects to the MORX total. The Half Million Quasars catalog (HMQ: 2015, PASA 32, 10) is available here. The count is 510,764 quasars, AGN and type 2 objects, including those of SDSSDR12Q.Superseded catalogs: ARXA (2010, PASA 27,283) is here. QORG (2004, A&A 427, 387) is here.  The Space Clock is an analog 24hour clock with a unique movement  it strikes the hour when all 3 hands point to that hour. It can be viewed symmetrically from any angle, suitable for the next time you're in orbit. See the "gravity" version with upright hour numbers here . Clock movement ©2019 Eric Flesch.  A photo collection of QSOs/candidates positioned within galaxy disks (on the sky) is here, but nominal candidates within galaxy disks are usually due to bluish starburst zones and deblending artefacts. The fun is to find the true quasars amongst them. A
fun radiooptical anomaly (see 2nd
graphic on left) in a 1999 Alan
Stockton paper on 3C212 was critiqued
by me here.
The radiooptical offsets are
intriguing. Unfortunately it
hasn't been investigated since.  Is our Standard Cosmological Model "fit for purpose"? An engineer wouldn't think so, because there are three pieces of nonscientific magic built into it, being inflation. dark matter, and dark energy. These 3 are placeholders, quantifications of what we don't know, the gaps between the standard model and what is actually observed. That "dark matter" is so often elaborated as a form of matter, just shows the social power of a word. If instead the term was e.g., "gravitational scalar", then a more eclectic set of explanations would be presented. Same story with "dark energy", so the terms "dark matter" and "dark energy" are unfortunate. As for "inflation", it's a magic wand for transitioning the universe from its initial singularity to a larger universe that can be calculated and modelled. Well, magic will hold up neither bridges nor universes. Is today's cosmology run by a new generation of flat Earthers? The current Standard model is underpinned by the "flat universe", a spatial manifold of zero curvature with local perturbations. Guth's "inflation" theory provides a mechanism whereby a flat universe was attained as the result of an unknown causal process in the Universe's earliest moments. Today's cosmologists use this flat manifold in all their cosmological calculations including matter ratios, missing (dark) matter, and socalled accelerating expansion due to "dark energy". Thus, the flat universe is a crucial and indispensible platform for the Standard Cosmological Model. But this Standard Model holds that things are flying apart at high speed, which would seem very absurd except that people have grown so used to it by now. My own view is that a more general theory will remove the need for physical expansion. Thus we need a general model which subsumes the standard model just as, in relativity, GR subsumed SR. We endeavor to start by designating the Standard Model as the "Special Cosmological Model"  special in that it requires a flat universal manifold. We now generalize this into a "General Cosmological Model" by incorporating nonflat geometries, as follows. First, a quick simple description of the geometries. In a flat (i.e., curvature=0) 3D manifold, a sphere has a surface area of 4?R². A 3D manifold with curvature<0 is called spherical and in it a sphere has a lesser surface area, similarly curvature>0 is called hyperbolic in which a sphere has a greater surface area. These "nonEuclidean" geometries are known to be mathematically complete and internally consistent just as flat space is. Note that these geometries seamlessly transition from one to the other as curvature changes. Flat space of curvature=0 is but a single point on the curvature range axis, just as, with time, the present is only a single point on the pastpresentfuture time axis. These two paradigms look the same and may indeed be the same paradigm  given that "spacetime" unifies 3D space with time. As we perceive time as a forward flow akin to migration across past/future, so it is indicated that spatial curvature may also be migrating from (say) hyperbolic to spherical, with "flat" space simply being the current state  not because of any huge coincidence, but because we natively see the current curvature as flat regardless of wherever on the curvature axis it happens to be  just as we see the current time moment as the "present" even though it is always migrating. This notion that local space is flat simply because we natively see it as flat opens up interesting consequences: (1) As we look into deep space we are unknowingly looking into a universe of greater spatial curvature, thus our luminosity functions lose accuracy. It is like the deep universe is lensed darkly, moreso the farther you observe. This accounts for what is currently interpreted as "dark energy", a.k.a. the "accelerating expansion" of the universe. In fact those distant galaxies are closer than they appear, the hyperbolic curvature making them look smaller & fainter than flat space would. (2)
This extrapolates to the first moment of
the universe which then would have been
almost infinitely (3) The value of lightspeed (c) is seen to vary with spatial curvature. In hyperbolic space the "shells of space" contain larger volumes per radius R, but lightspeed travels along R so travels through those larger volumes of space. To native onlookers who see space as flat, the appearance is of c travelling faster. Thus measured lightspeed is a simple quantification of the local curvature of space. Lightspeed would be invariate by a measure encompassing spatial curvature. This model thus obsoletes inflation & dark energy, and provides a mechanism for the redshift by virtue of the slowing lightspeed over the æons. What we know as "universal expansion" is just a naïve interpretation (a.k.a. illusion) of the migrating spatial curvature. A remaining problem: "dark matter" should be obsoleted by the greater mass of earlier times (because more spatial curvature means more energy & mass) but it doesn't seem to be enough to account for the full amount of lensing seen, such as when a galaxy lenses a background quasar. This issue remains, although maybe I'm just undercalculating the mass. The paradigm of lightspeed decreasing with universal time puts a crimp into the modern technique of defining the length of the metre (meter) in terms of light cycles. Inflation will be seen to happen as our metre grows smaller causing old objects to measure as bigger (and heavier in metric terms), whether old standard kilograms or dinosaur bones. Issues remain but the simplicity of this General Cosmological Model appeals.  Index to my 1990s postings on sci.physics/sci.astro is here. Some good speculations, others not. In early days I was intrigued by the ideas of Halton Arp, and investigated them via my catalog processing. Dr. Arp was gracious throughout, and along the way we published a paper together. In the end I found that the bulk data did not support his notion of nearby quasars, so I dropped that. But some quasar confgurations (e.g., around NGC 3628 or NGC 1411) still echo, like looking at ghosts or Christmas tree lights, but they don't quantify into anything useful. An interesting topic is the many faint galaxies found along the line of sight to quasars  the "proximity effect". My idea is that these might be reflections of galaxies offset further away, and that some kind of quantum shear effect is responsible, i.e. a new kind of lensing. A topic worth watching. Topics of note:
For a superior presentation of the history and outline of the standard model, refer paper by B. Leibundgut: http://www.eso.org/~bleibund/papers/EPN/epn.html
Last
edited 14 February 2021 

© Eric Flesch 2021 

