From: eric@flesch.org (Eric Flesch)
Subject: Gravity *is* Acceleration [Hyperstar Cosmology]
Date: 1998/10/06
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General Relativity was founded upon the tenet of the Equivalence
Principle, which holds the dynamics of gravity to be identical to the
dynamics of acceleration. Here I show the Strongest Equivalence
Princple, which is that gravity *is* acceleration, specifically, the
acceleration of the expanding universe.
The picture is often painted of our 3-D manifold being the surface of
some 4-D sphere. In such a picture the sphere would expand
hyperradially (i.e. along a 4th spatial dimension), causing the
surface area (our universe) to expand.
While I entertained this model, certain observational constraints (the
inverse angular-size-to-redshift relationship) and mathematical
constraints (the non-viability of 4-D space) require a fifth
dimension. Thus our 4-dimensional space-time manifold defines a kind
of surface on a 5-D hypersphere. This hypersphere is no dead
artifact, but an essential and dynamic contributor to our total
universal picture.
And this hypersphere is expanding. And accelerating its expansion.
Now, this isn't exactly spatial expansion in the 3-D sense, as the
fifth dimension is not spatial. Instead it is reminiscent of a 2nd
dimension of time, or more precisely, inverse time (details in the
next posting).
The observational consequence of this expansion is that time is seen
to speed up with the aeons. Judging by the time to z=1 (50%
redshift), the period of time doubling is about 6*10^9 years. Note
that the latest measurement of supernova light curves show that the
universe is *accelerating* its expansion. This piece of the puzzle
has made this model possible.
Note that variable time flow is a normal part of GR. Time flows more
slowly, say, in the presence of gravitational forces, i.e. lower an
atomic clock to the surface of a neutron star (let's assume it's very
well-built), and when you pull it back up you will see it ran slowly
there. The time flow is slower there. So differential rate of time
flow is an established fact of our universe.
Therefore, the established principle of time dilation is all that's
needed to explain the cosmological redshift. Given the expansion of
the hyperstar, and the consequential speedup of time flow through the
aeons, the cosmological redshift is entirely explained in that time
simply ran slower in earlier days. There is no need for an additional
requirement of spatial expansion -- indeed, Occam's Razor rules it
out.
And gravity? Note that the hyperradial expansion of the hyperstar is
resisted *inertially* by matter. But the matter is pushed. And as a
sailing boat which tacks to the wind, so does the inertial resistance
of matter entail a resultant normal component to the 5-D force, normal
into the 3-D geometry. This normal force is gravity. Gravity is
simply *the 3-D component of the the hperradial acceleration of the
expanding universe*. The more massive the matter, the more strongly
it inertially resists the hyperradial acceleration, the stronger the
3-D projection of the forces, the stronger is the gravity.
This is why the theoriests cannot unify gravity with the other
fundamental forces. Gravity comes from outside our universe! And the
hyperstar model of the universe shows that not only is gravity
*equivalent* to acceleration, as Einstein observed, but that gravity
actually *is* acceleration, the acceleration of the expanding
universe.
It's kind of odd that the Standard model should hold that the universe
is expanding, and yet that we should somehow be oblivious to this most
fundamental of universal building blocks. Here it is seen that in
fact we feel this universal expansion every second of our lives.
Eric Flesch
Nelson, New Zealand
7 October 1998